histoire Martinique - historique martinique - histoires Martinique
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Looking for the history of the island of Martinique
Origin and important dates in the history of Martinique of volcanic origin, the peninsulas of the Caravelle and Sainte-Anne the oldest on the island appeared some 18 million years ago.
Then appeared the mountain of Vauclin, Morne Jacob and the Pitons of Carbet. The culminating point of the island, the Mount Pelee is 400,000 years, a young volcano that is the subject to careful monitoring since its eruptions are rare but violent.
Important dates
First century:
The ARAWAKS, peaceful people, are the original inhabitants of the islands; they lived by fishing, hunting and fruit.
Between XI / XII centuries:
The Caribbean Indians landed and massacred the ARAWAKS, they killed the men and kept the women to serve them. The island is then called MADININA (Island Flower)
June 15, 1502
Arrival of Columbus, who arrived at Carbet (on the Caribbean Coast)
Marks the beginning of colonization, with the construction of Fort St. Pierre in Martinique.
The Martinique is the witness of many wars between English Dutch and French, Caribbean Indians were exterminated.
1664: Colbert formalizes the slave trade.
1725: The Martinique becomes prosperous through the sugar industry, Saint Pierre its capital accounts for 20 distilleries within its walls and 13 within surrounding areas. To address the need for labor, slaves are brought from Africa.
1763: Birth of Josephine Tascher at the Pagerie aux Trois Ilets, the future French Empress, Josephine De Beauharnais (wife of Napoleon Bonaparte).
1814: The Martinique becomes permanently French after being under the English rule.
1848: The abolition of slavery imposed on April 27, and recognized on May 23 in Martinique by Victor Schoelcher after the insurrection of the slaves.
1902: Year of political effervescence in Martinique with its 3 representatives, one senator and two deputies, two of whom are of color.
On May 3, 1902, a first explosion emerges from the mountain pelée, clouds of ash flood Saint Pierre. In the midst of preparing for elections, the second round of the legislative elections scheduled for May 17, the governor and the mayor of Saint Pierre, publish communiqués to ask the population to stay calm and resume its activity, while the volcano continues scolding.
On May 8, 1902: volcanic eruption, causing 28,000 deaths.
May 20, 1902: second burst which shaves definitely Saint Pierre, lava flows rise up to the first storey houses.
On June 6, 1902: Cloud burning on Morne Rouge, 1,500 dead.
The Martinique accounts then some 15000 victims, most of which will go to Fort de France, which became the new capital.
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